click to visit StorageSearch.com home page
leading the way to the new storage frontier
..
.....
SSD endurance
the Top SSD Companies
meet Ken and the SSD event horizon
how fast can your SSD run backwards?
popular SSD articles on StorageSearch.com
decloaking hidden segments in the enterprise
10 key SSD ideas which became clearer in 2014
Exiting the Astrological Age of enterprise SSD pricing
.
SSD ad - click for more info
.
enterprise SSD arrays - HA is now mainstream
Editor:- October 13, 2014 - It's strange how a subject which I first heard about as an exotic reference in a lecture 38 years ago keeps coming back to me in different ways.

But coming back to the present day - I can confidently tell you that fault tolerant / high availability SSD systems have now entered the mainstream of the SSD market.

Furthermore I suspect that debates about all the differing faiths of SSD systems level reliability (and what "reliability" itself means) could (one day soon) come to consume nearly as much of your time on the web (when researching enterprise flash) as reading about endurance did before.

See how this journey began for me - and also how you may have come into this equation too - in my new blog on StorageSearch.com
.
from the SSD news archive
August
2014
Samsung ships 10nm SAS SSDs

Diablo unveils DDR-4 flash DIMM SSDs

July
2014
SanDisk launches ZetaScale (enterprise flash memory tier software)

NxGn Data exits stealth with promise of in-situ SSD processing
June
2014
SanDisk to buy Fusion-io

IBM is #1 in rackmount SSD revenue
May
2014
Seagate agrees to acquire LSI's flash business for $450 million

Kaminario guarantees amplified usable capacity
April
2014
SanDisk samples 4TB 2.5" SAS SSDs

Violin enters the SSD integrated server market
March
2014
Samsung says its 2.5" NVMe PCIe SSD are 3x faster than 12Gbps SAS SSDs
February
2014
A3CUBE unveils PCIe memory fabric for 10,000 node-class architectures

Marvell samples 5K IOPS smartphone SSD (eMMC 5.0)
January
2014
IBM revamps TMS rackmount SSDs and launches memory channel SSD servers (with SanDisk / Diablo inside)

Half Micron's nand flash now used in SSDs

InnoDisk's (MO-276) nanoSSD in full scale production

Netlist says ULLtraDIMM SSDs infringe its patents

And prior to that...

what changed in SSD year 2013?
.
DRAM SSD interfaces and PCIe fabrics are hotting up the top storage searches - in anticipation of new enterprise architectures
Editor:- October 1, 2014 - Total SSD article views on StorageSearch.com grew 5% year on year in September 2014- despite all the changes in Google algorithms and increased competition in the SSD market reporting space.

But what have readers actually been looking at?

I'll be reporting on the 30th quarterly Top SSD Companies later this month. That involves a lot of work, cross checking and writing associated articles. All of which takes time. But what I can reveal today are these observations - based on reader metrics.
  • In Q3 2014 - Memory Channel SSDs became the 2nd most popular SSD form factor which readers followed up in articles and news stories. (#1 - in case you can't remember - has been - since 2009 - PCIe SSDs)
  • In September 2014 - the 3 SSD related companies which our readers were reading about most were:-

    #1 - Diablo (DDR3/4 flash technology)
    #2 - A3CUBE (PCIe memory fabric) and
    #3 - Fusion-io (no introduction required)
What does that signify?

It won't come any surprise to long term readers that there are still significant changes coming in SSD enabled data server architecture.

Having become accustomed to the idea that low latency flash inside servers has become an essential part of the job description of any multi-user enterprise server - and being offered a rich variety of competing alternative ways to bind CPUs and storage with SSDs by the SSD software market - the next natural questions for users and applications developers to ask are these:-
  • why do we have such low limits being set in directly addressible low latency memory capacity?
  • why should the performance in a single server box still dictate the ultimate bottleneck perfomance limits for critical data integrity and synchonization house keeping tasks in strategic applications - when we have access to thousands of servers?
  • why are our most expensive and fastest SSD enabled servers and storage systems being forced to use different software to the cheaper ones we use in other locations?
The roadmap vision I'm seeing emerge from enterprise SSD developments in 2014 - is that while oems and users are being offered more choices in form factors and flash memory types - each of which adds to the raw confusion of which one is best to use - the mission statement for the software developers and fabric enablers - or those who want to please their investors - will be to create SSDcentric platforms which enable these disparate pieces to be seen as interoperable subsets of a bigger continuum architecture - in which users can move freely across wide cost/performance boundaries without hitting walls which restrict their freedom to expand in any direction they want to go.

But it will get more complicated than that.

Just as early modern SSDs had to interoperate with legacy software and data storage in order to justify their costs - future SSD software developers will have to look at the messy patchwork of SSD accelerated servers and SSD SAN storage which are being installed today as part of their future "legacy problem".

Seen from that angle - some solutions in the enterprise SSD jigsaw puzzle box today - already seem to have better longevity prospects and opportunities for future upcycling than others.


.

.
For many people in the computer industry - the content of Primary Data's launch will initially seem like - "42".
data, storage, servers, apps and everything


.

.
advertising SSD technology on StorageSearch.com
Editor:- September 22, 2014 - This is a time of year when many marketers are reviewing their business plans and wondering about ways to increase their visibility to the people that matter in the SSD market.

You may not have known this but StorageSearch.com was the first publication in the world to focus on the SSD market and we've been selling ads which have helped to shape and change the SSD market for 15 years.

Here's an interesting aspect of our customers which only occurred to me this afternoon when I was thinking about how many great SSD ad slots we've now got to offer.

If I look back at SSD related companies which have been acquired since January 2013 - who were also significant multi-year SSD advertisers on StorageSearch.com it yields a list like this:- Now you may wonder - after seeing the above list - whether the primary reason for SSD companies to advertise their wares at all was because they wanted to get acquired?

But many of these customers of ours were advertising SSDs on StorageSearch.com for many years before there was any appetite for such activities.

Why did they do it?

They advertised to get noticed and to get more visibility for their messages where the serious SSD customers are.

And maybe also in some cases because they liked the market expanding SSD awareness content which StorageSearch.com delivered.

What about advertising SSDs today?

There's no guarantee that advertising your SSDs will lead to your SSD company getting acquired. (That would be a ridiculous notion.)

But it will get you noticed sooner and deliver more visibly to people who make this market happen.

So if you're not scared of mice, and if you're involved in sales, marketing or business development in an SSD company - then you may be interested in learning more about this.

To learn more - contact me by email Zsolt@StorageSearch.com or take a look at these information pages.


.
image shows mouse at the one armed bandit - click to see VC funds in storage
VCs in SSDs


.
AnandTech article re age symmetry performance bug in Samsung's 840 EVO SSD
Editor:- September 20, 2014 - Recalls, bugs and firmware upgrades in consumer SSDs are nothing new - but there's a particularly interesting dimension of anxiety for SSD design verifiers which is revealed in a recent story - about the nature of a read performance bug in Samsung's 840 EVO - which appears in AnandTech.

The article's author Kristian Vättö, SSD Editor at AnandTech says - "there is a bug in the 840 EVO that causes the read performance of old blocks of data to drop dramatically... The odd part is that the bug only seems to affect LBAs that have old data (>1 month) associated with them because freshly written data will read at full speed, which also explains why the issue was not discovered until now."

Editor's comments:- This shows that there is still a high degree of immaturity and unwillingness to learn good practises from other industries in some parts of the consumer design verification market.

In many industries in which I worked in my pre online life - 1,000 hour tests designed to seek out errors were part of the standard norm.

I first learned about these 1,000 hour tests 35 years ago when I visited an early production version of a fuel consumption meter and data logger which I had designed for auto engine test beds. I was going to change the power supply for a replacement which we had screened through extended high temperature burn in - because we had discovered a design fault in these units which came from a leading PSU vendor - which could be detected by such testing. Our rack wasn't in use - so I turned the power off.

Klaxons and sonalerts started going off all over the place! - and people started rushing up to this bed to ask what was I was doing?! - because I had inadvertently shut down the power to other instruments in the same cabinet which were connected to other engines which were still undergoing 1.000 hour tests.

About 11 years later (about 1990) - and in a different company - my engineers had designed a database driven real-time broadcast program sharing and audio routing control system for the BBC.

But the BBC insisted we run a 1,000 hour software test with simulated users before they would let us install the first system.

During the 1,000 hour test we actively ran analysis code to look for anomalous behavior.

We found a bug! It was in part of the real-time OS firmware which didn't recycle memory properly after it was released from some real-time tasks.

The amounts of "stolen memory blocks" had been too small to notice in our initial testing - but built up over time and by adding more users. It was easy to fix - and we were lucky that our customer had insisted on the tests.

I heard via linkedin recently from one of the engineers who stayed with that industry - our customer continued using and upgrading those systems for about 20 years. But the story would have had a different ending (and much sooner) if the bugs hadn't been picked up before being deployed to control broadcast feeds.

In the enterprise SSD market - there's a lot more testing done on systems before they are sold to customers.

But in the consumer market - a thousand hours of extra design verification (42 days) can be the equivalent of as much as 20% of the product's market life. And there's a different relationship with end users - which verges on the low value churnable customer view rather than towards seeking a high value long term partnership. So you can see why engineers in consumer SSD design groups face a lot of pressure to release designs too soon.

This type of long developing performance bug can be a nightmare for product designers.

Due to its importance I listed it as 1 of the 11 design symmetries in SSD design - "age symmetry - How does the SSD performance change relative to the time it has been running..."


.
Test Equipment
testing SSDs


.

.
the Top SSD Companies in Q2 2014
Editor:- August 1, 2014 - StorageSearch.com recently published the new 29th quarterly edition of the Top SSD Companies - based on metrics in Q2 2014. There are 2 first time appearances in this new edition. And some new updates. ...read the article


.

.
whatever gave you that silly idea?
Can you trust SSD market data?
.
popular SSD articles and recommended SSD blogs
SSD articles & blogs


.
Many factors at play in enterprise SSD market behavior still don't appear as explicit assumptions in SSD product marketing plans.

A contributory cause for gaps in segmental understanding has been the continuing pace of disruptive innovation in enterprise SSD-land - which has meant there hasn't been a stable market template for vendors to follow.
Decloaking hidden segments in the enterprise for rackmount SSDs


.
cloud storage news, vendors, articles  and directory - click here
cloud storage


.
I think that 2014 will be seen as the start of a new phase of creativity in the enterprise SSD market on the subject of pricing and affordability. As evidence for that - I'm going to mention 3 companies at the end of this article - whose recent activities - while different in detail - were swirling around in my head this week.
Exiting the Astrological Age of Enterprise SSD Pricing


.


.
click to read the article - Big versus Small SSD  architectures
Size matters in SSD architecture


.
"SSD efficiency is a very powerful differentiator in technology and I think it will also be very important in influencing business success too."
Efficiency - making the same SSD - with less flash


.
SSD silos article
datacenter SSD silos


.
"That step in improved utilization means that when users make the switch to the newer software - not only do they need less servers - but they don't need as many SSDs either."
meet Ken - and the enterprise SSD software event horizon


.


.
click to see directory of SAS SSD companies
SAS SSDs


.
what's the state of DWPD?
Diskful Writes Per Day in leading enterprise SSDs


.
click here to see our directory of SSD market analysts
SSD market analysts


.
PCIe SSDs for use in enterprise server acceleration have been shipping in the market since 2007. It's one of the most popular SSD subjects pursued by our readers (and has been since 2009).

With over 100 million enterprise PCIe ports already shipped - the converging PCIe SSD / server market is well positioned to expand into new applications.
the PCIe SSD directory on StorageSearch.com


.
"The winners in SSD software could be as important for infrastructure as Microsoft was for PCs, or Oracle was for databases, or Google was for search."
get ready for a new world in which
all enterprise data touches SSDs


.
"Don't place too much credence in what SSD companies tell you about the present or the future of the SSD market."
Survivor's Guide to Enterprise SSDs
pcie  SSDs - click to read article
PCIe SSDs ..
memory channel storage
memory channel SSDs ...
hybrid DIMMs
flash backed DIMMs ..
..

SSD news

2 days retention after 0.4 hot DWPD for 5 years and other things worth knowing

Editor:- October 23, 2014 - When choosing an SSD form factor and interface for a new embedded / industrial project - in most cases that determination will be obvious - and driven by considerations such as:-
  • is the new project like something you did before?
  • and what would you like to change based on what you learned from that?
  • or the availability of new smaller sizes or lower power SSDs or faster SSDs or denser (more efficient) SSDs which in themselves can make new application directions feasible.
Today I read a tour guide of the range of sizes and interfaces available in small embedded SSDs (pdf) - from Virtium - which says among other things...

"the 10-pin embedded USB module is not officially regulated by any industry standards body, but thanks to industry R&D – in this case, “rip-off and duplicate” - OEMs can source mechanically equivalent modules from multiple sources."

The above paper is several years old old - but still contains many relevant ideas. And the reason I noticed it now was because it was easier to find than it had been before - as it's one of a group of papers on the theme of selecting embedded SSDs according to design and environmental considerations which Virtium has collected together in a new resource page this week.

how does DWPD and retention come into this?

Within this set - a more recent paper - temperature considerations in SSDs (pdf) includes some stark graphs and observations about data retention - which you should be aware of - even if you're not in the industrial market.

"This shows the dramatic effects that temperature has on data retention for given workloads. For the same 750 full drive writes (0.4 drive writes per day for 5 years), SSDs operated and stored at 85°C will only have 2 days of data retention, whereas those drives at 40°C will have 1 year and those at room temperature 25°C will exhibit characteristics of nearly 8 years of data retention." ...read the article (pdf)


flash backed DIMMs - new directory on StorageSearch.com

Editor:- October 21, 2014 - Although StorageSearch.com has been writing about flash backed DRAM DIMMs since the first products appeared in the market - I didn't think that subject was important enough before to rate a specific article or market timeline page.

That's unlike - memory channel SSDs - which has become 1 of the top 10 SSD subjects viewed by readers after having had its own directory page here since April 2013.

Despite my lack of initial enthusiasm for bybrid DIMMs (or hybrid drives for that matter too) I realize that sometimes a market is defined as much by what it isn't as by what it is. Which is why I have relented.

And so - to help clarify the differences between these 2 types of similar looking storage devices (one of which I think is much more significant than the other - but both of which are important for their respective customers) I have today created a directory page for hybrid DIMMs etc - which will act as the future launch pad for related articles.


StorageReview.com tests Fusion-io's Atomic PCIe SSD

Editor:- October 21, 2014 - Earlier this year - in June 2014 - and just weeks before SanDisk announced it was acquiring the company - Fusion-io launched a new generation of PCIe SSDs - the Atomic Series - which was an overdue catching up exercise to use cheaper 20nm flash.

At the time the headline product specifications seemed to me to be adequate - rather than spectacular.

It's probably safe to assume they were intended to restore the competitiveness of Fusion-io's products rather than push performance boundaries.

But what are they like? And how do they compare?

A new article - Fusion ioMemory PX600 Review - published in StorageReview.com provides the answers to how it performs and how it compares on popular OS platforms and benchmarks. ...read the article

See also:- how fast can your SSD run backwards?, SSD testing & analyzer news


HP plus EMC? - the SSD DNA mix from Jurassic Park

Editor:- October 20, 2014 - I'm still here. I've been working on a new article (see above).

PS - I didn't think it was worth commenting here earlier about that EMC / HP merger story - which is covered in many other places such as BusinessInsider.com

My reasoning was this.

No matter how you mix the DNA from 2 dinosaurs - the result is unlikely to be a mammal.

See also:- animal brands and metaphors in the storage market and animal brands in the SSD market


SSDs are made of this

Editor:- October 14, 2014 - Without memory - there would be no SSDs.

And while naturally the emphasis in SSD thinking is mostly on - how can we do useful and affordable things with SSDs? - despite how terribly flawed the raw material is which we have to work with (which leads you to architecture, controllers, data integroty and software) - it can nevertheless be strategically useful for SSD specifiers to sometimes brace themselves for a deep dive down into the cold details of how much better (or worse) those raw memory characteristics are going to get - so you can anticipate future developments.

This week the best place to look is MemCon.

Here's the agenda page.


Samsung versus Samsung


3D MLC v 2D TLC (wrapped in a SATA SSD)


Editor:- October 10, 2014 - What are the differences seen at the SSD level when you compare Samsung's 3D nand (32 cells stacked vertically in the chip MLC - with 2 bits per cell discrimination) with 2D (planar) TLC (1 cell high fabrication but 3 bits per cell discrimination)?

3D versus TLC are different memory manufacturing techniques with different technology roadmaps - but both are out in the wild of the market in SATA SSDs at the present time.

Jim Handy - the SSD Guy - has published a new blog - Comparing Samsung's V-NAND and Planar SSDs which compares the possible differences in performance and power consumption as viewed in the context of 2 SATA SSDs - the 850 and 840 respectively - which use the same controller.

Re IOPS - Jim says "the 850 performs consistently better than the 840 at all block sizes for constant streams of writes and for a 65:35 read/write mix. At the 100% read workload the performance of the two SSDs is roughly equivalent."

Editor's comments:- Although small superficial differences emerge in the benchmarks - I don't think they're significant.

Because even if you introduced 2 SSDs using the same memory technology at different dates for the consumer market - you might - as a product marketing decision - choose to tweak the controller biases a different way.

Instead what I find more interesting is how closely Samsung was able to match 2 SSD characteristics using different memories. This is a shrewd strategic signal to their oem customers that they know enough about the internals to deliver a consumer SSD with a given set of characteristics regardless of what is the most convenient memory technology to take from their fab.

In other markets - such as embedded / industrial SSDs - being able to retain and deliver precisely the same SSD power and performance envelope - despite using different types and generations of raw flash over a 7 year or so market period - has developed into a more refined artform.


Netlist asks court to shut down SanDisk's ULLtraDIMM production and recall units already sold

storage patent disuputeEditor:- October 10, 2014 - Netlist recently announced it has filed a motion for preliminary injunction which seems to be intended to restrain Diablo and its flash-side SSD integration partner SanDisk from any further manufacture or sale of the ULLtraDIMM (memory channel SSDs).

The Court has set a tentative date of December 2, 2014, for a hearing on Netlist's motion. If granted this would immediately shut down any further manufacture and sale of the ULLtraDIMM. Netlist has further asked the Court to order the recall of any ULLtraDIMM products previously sold.

Editor's comments:- This series of legal disputes has been going on since last year. If you haven't read those stories - the essential story is something like this.

At some time in the past Netlist and Diablo had a technology supplier agreement - as a result of which - Diablo had access to Netlist's IP related to minimizing the capacitive load of complex circuits susch as controllers when they sit on a DRAM style of bus. Netlist doesn't have any products which are similar to SanDisk's ULLtraDIMM - but Netlist claims that the ULLtraDIMM design has used its patented interface technology without a license. Countering that - Diablo says it did get the rights to use some of the DRAM load interface technology - and that in any case - this aspect of the design is not the essential defining characteristic of their flash SSD architecture.

Yesterday Diablo's CEO - Riccardo Badalone retorted to Netlist's latest legal move saying this - "After a year of court proceedings and months of discovery, Netlist still cannot decipher how Memory Channel Storage works, much less substantiate that it infringes on any of their IP."


Efficiency is important for web scale users - says Coho

Editor:- October 9, 2014 - Facebook as a file system - a web scale case study - a new blog by Andy Warfield , cofounder and CTO - Coho Data - made very interesting reading for me - as much for revealing the authoritative approach taken in Andy's systematic analysis - as for the object of his discussion (Facebook's storage architecture).

It reveals useful insights into the architectural thinking and value judgments of Coho's technology - and is not simply another retelling of the Facebook infrastructure story.

When you read it you may get different things out of it - because it's rich in raw enterprise ideas related to architecture, software, and dark matter users. All of which makes it hard to pick out any single quote. But here are 2.
  • re - the miss match between enterprise products and user needs

    Andy Warfield says - "In the past, enterprise hardware has had a pretty hands-off relationship with the vendor that sells it and the development team that builds it once it's been sold. The result is that systems evolve slowly, and must be built for the general case, with little understanding of the actual workloads that run on them."
  • re efficiency and utilization

    Andy Warfield says - "Efficiency is important. As a rough approximation, a server in your datacenter costs as much to power and cool over 3 years as it does to buy up front. It is important to get every ounce of utility that you can out of it while it is in production."
There are many more I could have chosen. ... read the article


You don't need to worry about the endurance of our FlashSystems - says IBM

Editor:- October 7, 2014 - Worried about endurance?

"None of the thousands of FlashSystem products (fast rackmount SSDs) which IBM has shipped has ever worn out yet! - says Erik Eyberg, Flash Strategy & Business Development at IBM - in his new blog - Flash storage reliability: Aligning technology and marketing. "And our metrics suggest that will remain true in almost all cases for many, many years (certainly well beyond any normal and expected data center life cycle)"

Erik goes on to explain that's the reason IBM can now officially cover flash storage media wear-out as part of its standard IBM FlashSystem warranty and maintenance policies - without changing the prices for these services.

And his blog has a link to a white paper about the reliability architecture underlying this product (although it's behind a sign-up wall - which seems counter productive to me.)

Editor's comments:- Don't expect all other flash array vendors to follow suit (with no cost endurance guarantees) - because this product range from IBM is based on design rules and memory reliability architectures experience in FC SAN compatible enterprise SSD racks which have evolved since the 1st generation RamSan from TMS (in 2000). And for more than a decade before that using other popular enterprise storage interfaces.

Holly Frost - who founded Texas Memory Systems - and who was the CEO when TMS was acquired - told me a revealing story about TMS's policies concerning the reliability of their SSD systems and customer care procedures.

This conversation took place in December 2011 - when the company was launching its first high availability SSD - which became the basis of IBM's FlashSystem.

It still makes interesting reading today. You can see it in this article - in the right hand column - scroll down to the box titled - "no single point of failure - except..."

See also:- high availability enterprise SSDs


Toshiba orders 1 million SSD controllers this quarter from Phison

Editor:- October 7, 2014 - A report on Digitimes says that Toshiba has ordered "about one million" SSD controllers from Phison for delivery in the current quarter.

Editor's comments:- You can get an idea of who else uses Phison's controllers (Corsair, Kingston etc) - and for what purposes - on Phison's news page.


SolidFire gets another $82 million funding

Editor:- October 7, 2014 - SolidFire today announced it has closed an $82 million Series D round of funding, bringing its total funding to $150 million.

New investor Greenspring Associates led the round along with a major sovereign wealth fund, with participation from current investors NEA, Novak Biddle, Samsung Ventures and Valhalla Partners. SolidFire will use the additional funds to extend its global reach.

Editor's comments:- The basic building blocks of SolidFire's SSD systems are 1U iSCSI rackmount SSDs which include 10x 2.5" SSDs. At that level it's the same as 100 or so other competing systems.

If you want fibre channel access - you add a special 1U adapter rack to the native IP array. So it's expensive - but keeps the unit costs of the most common building blocks down - compared to including native unified storage in each rack. So in the case of a big installation - it's a reasonable cost optimization tradeoff.

A key difference is SolidFire's software architecture and the fact they use a big controller architecture type of RAID - which they call "no-RAID".

In SolidFire's no-RAID (which is really big RAID) - the data is more widely dispersed across the drive population than in classical (small architecture) RAID.

The effect is much less disruption to data access and consistent performance when a drive fails - because SolidFire's software can manage upto about 100 racks as a raw storage resource (1,000 SSD drives) - so the impact of a single drive down is small. Users also have a high degree of flexibility as to how they micro manage different virtualized segments of storage to meet their different QoS goals.

See also:- VCs and SSDs


We need new software abstractions to efficiently handle all the different emerging flavors of persistent enterprise memory - says SanDisk

Editor:- October 3, 2014 - New enterprise software abstractions are needed in order to efficiently utilize all those unruly developments in flash, tiered flash-DRAM architecture and NVDIMMs.

And laying the educational framework for those ideas - along with some practical suggestions for where applicable solutions might be coming from - is the theme of a recent blog - the Emergence of Software-Defined Memory - written by Nisha Talagala, Fellow at SanDisk & Fusion-io - who (among other things) says:-

"We're seeing excitement build for a new class of memory:- persistent memory - which has the persistence capabilities of storage and access performance similar to memory.

"Given this richness of media technologies, we now have the ability to create systems and data center solutions which combine a variety of memory types to accelerate applications, reduce power, improve server consolidation, and more.

"We believe these trends will drive a new set of software abstractions for these systems which will emerge as software-defined memory – a software driven approach to optimizing memory of all types in the data center." ...read the article

See also:- are you ready to rethink enterprise DRAM architecture?


NetApp says - the time for taking risks with enterprise flash startups is over

Editor:- October 1, 2014 - Demise of the flash startups is the provocative title of a recent blog by Craig Alger at NetApp - who asserts that the "brief window of time where fast and agile (enterprise SSD) startups can get the jump on large, slow manufacturers" has now ended.

Craig questions how startups like Pure and Tegile can expect to compete now that "titans of the industry" such as NetApp, and EMC (and by implication IBM, Dell, and HP too) have gotten their flash toys acquired, oemed, licensed and integrated neatly within vast product catalogs?

Editor's comments:- If you agree with Craig's premise - that all the disruptive innovation is now over - then you'd probably also agree that it's not worth taking risks with new enterprise SSD startups. Just stick with the big safe vendors and you'll be OK.

You won't be surprised to learn I disagree.

This is what I said to Craig (by email) yesterday...

"Hi Craig,

I saw your blog - Demise of the Flash startups - and might comment / post about it. Liked the middle but disagree about the conclusion.

I would agree - if the pace of disruptive change in enterprise SSD architecture had slowed down and if it already did solve most problems.

"But with a lot of very big changes in utilization still to come - the potential market size for genuinely innovative enterprise SSD startups (drives, systems and software) is bigger than it was before.

"So there will more startup companies to acquire, license from and compete with. No one's got a whole stable solution architecture and credible roadmap yet. At best current flash systems are stepping stones to somewhere else."

Oh - and if you're wondering - which is the part of Craig's blog I liked the most (apart from the cleverly provocative title) it was where he says "...those SSDs aren't as expensive as they used to be." ...read Craig's article


Samsung mass produces 3TB 3D 10 DWPD PCIe SSDs

Editor:- September 25, 2014 - Samsung today announced it has started mass producing 3.2 TB NVMe PCIe SSDs (HHHL) based on its 3D flash memory technology, for use in enterprise systems.
pic of Samsung PCIe SSD
The new NVMe PCIe SSD, SM1715 provides a sequential R/W speeds upto 3GB/s and 2.2GB/s respectively with endurance rated at 10 DWPD for 5 years.

Editor's comments:- In March 2014 - reporting on a conversation I had with FMJ - I alerted readers to their characterization of 3D for industrial SSDs - and the indication that endurance (due to better intrinsic materials) was2-3x better than 2D at the same cell geometry.


Micron's enterprise SSD revenue grew 79% QOQ

Editor:- September 25, 2014 - In its Q4 earning conference call today Micron said that about 66% to 75% of its nand flash had gone into client SSDs - with the remainder being enterprise. However Micron also said its enterprise SSD revenue was up 79% quarter-on-quarter. ...full transcript on SeekingAlpha.com


Diablo countersues Netlist

Editor:- September 25, 2014 - Diablo announced today that is has filed a lawsuit against Netlist for unfair business practices that violate Diablo's IP rights.

This appears to be a countermeasure to 2 earlier lawsuits initiated by Netlist against Diablo - which were widely reported by the SSD related press in January 2014.

Today - Diablo reiterates that its Memory Channel Storage (DDR3/4 form factor and interface compatible flash SSD) is a new and innovative architecture that neither infringes upon, nor misappropriates any Netlist IP rights. And Diablo argues that its MCS-based products and the Netlist HyperCloud DIMM (high density DRAM) - which were the cited products in Netlist's earlier legal moves - are designed to serve different purposes and are not interchangeable.

Diablo says the contract between the 2 companies (which has been mentioned in the press) clearly assigns legal ownership of the implementation IP in the HyperCloud chipset to Diablo. As a result, Diablo is seeking damages for breach of contract for Netlist's attempt to usurp the company's IP rights.

"We have been very patient throughout this entire process and it is now time for us to share our side of the story" said Riccardo Badalone, CEO and Co-founder of Diablo Technologies. "We will demonstrate definitively that products based on the Memory Channel Storage architecture do not use any Netlist IP."


rackmount SSDs - new reports from Evaluator Group

Editor:- September 24, 2014 - Evaluator Group today announced it's expanding its comparison report coverage (priced from around $2,750 for IT end-users) related to rackmount SSD and hybrid array vendors.

The latest addition to EV's research area are product analyses for 15 vendors, including: Cisco, EMC, HDS, HP, IBM, Kaminario, NetApp, Nimble, Nimbus, Pure Storage, SanDisk, SolidFire, Tegile, Tintri and Violin.

"Over the next 3 years Evaluator Group expects Solid State Storage Systems to be the architecture adopted for primary storage," said Camberley Bates, Managing Partner & Analyst at Evaluator Group. "Performance to reduce latency and improve consistency, along with reliability and efficiency functionality will drive this change. It is important IT end users understand the trade-offs of design and technical implementation to best suit their needs."

Using the Solid State Evaluation Guide to understand the critical technology characteristics EV says IT end users can clearly identify their requirements and priorities. The Solid State Comparison Matrix allows for side-by-side comparison of product specifications and capabilities. Evaluator Group guides IT end users through the process with product reviews and expertise on managing and conducting a Proof of Concept. Evaluator Group Solid State Storage Systems coverage includes products specifically designed to exploit the characteristics of all solid state deployment.

What will you be getting?

EV is offering a free evaluation copy of their report for the IBM FlashSystem to people who sign up for it.

Editor's comments:- with so many different architectural roles for enterprise SSDs and different user preferences - it's unrealistic to suppose that any simple side by side product comparisons will suit all permutations of user needs. But having said that - any reliable information which assists user education and comprehension into SSD arrays is a good thing.

Some flash array vendors - realizing the futility of expecting that users will understand what their products do and how they will interact with the bottlenecks and demands of user installations and workloads - have instead opted to side-step these delay laden hard user selection quandries - which are exaggerated by the concerns of getting it wrong - by instead offering new risk delineated pricing models - as described in my article - Exiting the Astrological Age of Enterprise SSD Pricing.

See also:- playing the enterprise SSD box riddle game, storage market research, what do enterprise SSD users want?


Microsoft's SSD-aware VMs - discussed on InfoQ

Editor:- September 24, 2014 - There are now so many enterprise SSD software companies that keeping track of them all is a little like tallying 2.5" SSD makers - a tedious chore -which in most cases isn't worth the bother.

Nevertheless - SSD-centric software is strategically important - and some vendors are more important than others - despite having been latecomers in the enterprise flash wars .

One such company is Microsoft.

A news story today - Microsoft Azure Joins SSD Storage Bandwagon on InfoQ - discusses Microsoft's D-Series SSD-aware VMs - and places this in the context of other products from well known sources.

The blog's author - Janakiram MSV says "One important aspect of SSD based VMs on Azure is that they are not persistent. Data stored on these volumes cannot survive the crash or termination of virtual machines. This is different from both Amazon EC2 and Google Compute Engine, which offer persistent SSDs. On Azure, customers have to ensure that the data stored on the SSD disks is constantly backed up to Azure blob storage or other VMs." ...read the article


CoreRise discloses who it's talking to - about SSD IP

Editor:- September 24, 2014 - I've noticed some news updates recently from CoreRise.

Viewed singly the content appears lightweight and more like tweets than the usual kind of news I would write about on this page - but when viewed as a total set they give a useful picture of technology directions at CoreRise.

In the space of single week CoreRise reported visits from Seagate (re SF3700 controllers), Micron (re flash memory), SMI (re controllers) and also JMicron (re controllers).

CoreRise also made a refreshingly candid comment about its own attitude to the kind of reference designs which SSD controller makers typically offer SSD oems as a quick to market route to market (in which the SSD maker simply takes the design from the controller maker as a ready made IP solution and simply just adds their own memory.

CoreRise said that due to quality considerations - and its own expertise - "as a rule, CoreRise never uses the reference design due to potential defects. In the past CoreRise has found critical bugs in almost every such solution."


Diablo is the #1 SSD company being followed up in recent weeks

Editor:- September 23, 2014 - StorageSearch.com doesn't publish a regular list of the Top SSD Companies searched for by readers in the 1st 3 weeks of September.

That's because 7+ years of Top SSD company tracker company history has demonstrated that 3 month (quarterly) sampling periods are more reliable (than 3 weeks).

But if we did - a 3 week tracker - the #1 company this month would be - Diablo.

In particular readers are looking at Diablo's FMS presentation (pdf) from which I extracted these key features in earlier memory channel SSDs news coverage in August.
  • Diablo's converged memory architecture (flash tiered with DRAM) is planned to support 700 million random cachelines / sec.
  • Latency of each cacheline is about 48 nanoseconds.
  • Diablo's NanoCommit supports byte addressable small writes to flash with high transaction rates and the ability to mirror the DRAM contents to persistent storage.
  • The combination of technologies would enable something like a 1U server with 25TB of converged memory.
Editor's comments:- I only mention it - because of the scale of interest involved.

One reason may be that - as you'll see in the next news story below - having SSDs located in a DIMM socket in one server - no longer precludes that very same data being accessed by another server as if it were just a locally installed PCIe SSD.

BTW - A3CUBE is #2 in September reader followups so far - and this is due to the story below.


A3CUBE - first US customer shipments soon

Editor:- September 18, 2014 - earlier this week A3CUBE effectively announced imminent US customer shipments of its PCIe connected shared reflective memory fabric - with the unveiling of the system software which works with its previously announced RONNIEE Express platform.

The Fortissimo Foundation software (overview pdf) is the new management and OS software which enables application agnostic hardware based memory synchronization of DRAM memory blocks across multiple servers (scalable to thousands) which are connected via a PCIe fabric with worst case access times under 1 micro-second (which includes operating system and software overhead). This enables access to all the resources in the cluster as if they were local.
concept diagram - click for more info

Editor's comments:- Before talking to Emilio Billi, Founder - A3CUBE last week about the new Fortissimo - 3 ideas popped into my head.
  • modeling the application performance

    I realized that in the absence of any other data (at this stage of the product's life cycle)- a good predictive analog for the usability of this remote shared memory system would be Diablo's memory channel SSD architecture.

    The key difference being that the 1st generation MCS has typical latencies around 3 to 5 microseconds (compared to 800nS RONNIEE Express), and MCS is operating with flash - whereas RE operates with DRAM. But as a first order approximation -my thinking was that any app which works well with MCS in a local server - will work just as well - or better - in a remote server connected by RE.
  • the importance of strategic software standard support

    My guess is that for many smaller developers of large memory architecture systems - SanDisk's ZetaScale (and related) APIs will come to be regarded as a "safe" hardware independent SSD software platform for flash. So - if it was easy to integrate A3CUBE's Fortissimo / RE within such APIs - that would provide a gateway to a much bigger market.
  • beyond legacy storage and SSD fabrics

    Obviously to get business now - A3CUBE has to demonstrate that their products can be useful and competitive when used with existing storage and SSD installations and architectures.

    But as more of the installed base moves towards new dynasty (always intended to include SSDs at the outset), and in the next 5 to 10 years as we see the current new generations of "software as something useful in an SSD server" - give way to new SSD software ecosystems - developed by stealth mode companies like Primary Data - whose products don't even exist yet (except as tantalizing investment objects and patent applications) - I could see that the A3CUBE style of connection - would still fit in well - because the ability to replicate and synchronize remote memory in multiple servers at latencies which are closer to hardware than software - isn't going to go oyt of fashion.
So I mentioned all those things to Emilio when we spoke. And this is what I learned.
  • Emilio said Diablo was one of the first external companies to recognize the work that A3CUBE was doing. And he said that Diablo's APIs should work easily with A3CUBE's platform (just as many other memory intensive apps).

    And - as I speculated before our conversation - the ability to seamlessly converge remote low latency RAM with remote flash across an almost unlimited set of servers - is a mind boggling ecosystem enabler. Because we should now view SSD memory products which do useful things locally in a single server - as simply a subset of a continuum which can span racks and cabinets - and change not only cost dynamics - but the very determination of what type of apps are possible.
  • Emilio said a significant bottleneck in all previous fabric systems was the mechanism of metadata synchronization.

    That's traditionally done in software - and no matter how many hundreds or thousands of servers you have in your installation - the scalability of those systems ultimately comes back to the software mechanism of how fast 2 servers can replicate or share a set of data.

    In A3CUBE's RE platform - the ability to broadcast an identical content of shared memory across hundreds or thousands of connected nodes is done in silicon.
  • re reliability? - I put it to Emilio that everything was being staked on the reliability of the RE platform - and I asked more about that.

    Emilio said that the Fortissimo / RE system can be configured to drop back to an ethernet fabric if the core RE fails - but if budget allows - then it can fall back to another RE. In neither event do you lose data or access to data. A3CUBE has been collecting reliability data from their early access systems - and will publish more about that later.
  • re when can customers order these systems?

    Emilio said that the first production system is already scheduled for delivery to a US customer next month.

    So to my way of looking at it - the general availability issue just seems to be related to how many of the software features are nice to have versus essential. That will depend on what the applications are.
  • re my other points - Emilio said that legacy big memory software platforms are already supported by Fortissimo (see their site for more details) and we found a lot to agree about re the other things I mentioned above.



Seagate announces strategic technology agreements with Baidu

Editor:- September 17, 2014 - Seagate today announced it has signed a strategic cooperation agreement with Baidu, China's largest web services firm.

Under the agreement, Baidu will give priority to Seagate products when considering components for all Baidu servers and storage facilities. In return Seagate will give priority to Baidu when providing enterprise storage products and relevant support, as well as maintain a dedicated engineering team for Baidu.

Editor's comments:- This is a very significant business announcement for Seagate. But it shouldn't come as any surprise - as the destinies of the companies were already set on a natural convergence of interests course which only needed the missing part of the IP jigsaw (SSDs) to complete the required harmony.

Here below is a verbatim quote from my coverage of Seagate's acquisition of LSI's SSD business in May 2014.

"I think that even if Seagate disregarded any new markets - and focused only on the high volume potential of existing cloud infrastructure customers and big web entities (like Google and Baidu) - who need value based enterprise SSDs - but who are perfectly capable of designing their own software and APIs and firmware tweaks - then Seagate could leverage the LSI SandForce SSD roadmaps for the next several years as a business tool to establish it as one of (several) leaders in the utility SSD segment of the cloud."

See also:- The big market impact of SSD dark matter, Decloaking hidden segments in the enterprise for rackmount SSDs


Silicon Motion has fastest UHS-II SD card controller

Editor:- September 17, 2014 - Silicon Motion today introduced the SM2704 which the company says is the world's fastest single-channel UHS-II SD card controller solution (aimed at the professional photography and video recording market) with a maximum R/W read speed of up to 280MB/s and 260MB/s respectively.

"Silicon Motion is the #1 merchant supplier of UHS-I/II card controllers, which are the majority of our overall SD card controller sales" said Wallace Kou, President and CEO of Silicon Motion.

See also:- SSD controllers, consumer SSDs


Maxta appoints new VP of business development

Editor:- September 17, 2014 - Maxta today announced the appointment of Jim Fitzgerald as its VP of business development and OEM sales. Fitzgerald joins Maxta from Nexenta where he was VP of business development.


another auspicious design win for ULLtraDIMM

Editor:- September 16, 2014 - SanDisk today announced that its ULLtraDIMM (memory channel SSD) has been selected by Huawei for use in its RH8100 V3 servers.

Huawei is ranked the top server supplier for cloud and mobility in China - by Sino-Bridge Consulting.

Editor's comments:- Since the January 2014 announcement that IBM was using ULLtraDIMM SSDs in some high end servers - there haven't been many conspicuously auspicious design win announcements like today's Huawei story.

One reason is that IBM had a head start on the market - having worked with Diablo for years to refine the MCS architecture and software APIs.

Another reason is that the 1st generation ULLtraDIMMs apparently guzzled more electrical power than modern RAM DIMMs even though they were still within the permitted power envelope according to industry standards.

This means that in order to support arrays of them in a server design (and indeed you do need arrays to get meaningful performance beyond the PCIe SSD level) requires a redesign of the copper power tracking on the motherboard. You can't just plug large numbers of ULLtraDIMMs into any old server without analyzing the thermal consequences.


Silverton Consulting interview with Pure Storage

Editor:- September 16, 2014 - Until now Pure Storage hasn't said enough about its software or SSD architecture - which has been a big negative as far I've been concerned.

Plugging that product data deficit - the company's Chief Technical Evangelist - Vaughn Stewart recently shared his thoughts in a podcast interview - GreyBeards talks all-flash storage with Pure Storage (podcast) published on Silverton Consulting - from which this quote is taken.

"Vaughn provides a good rational as to why we haven't seen any Pure Storage SPC-1/SPC-2 benchmarks, mainly because SPC will not audit storage that uses data reduction."

Editor's comments:- I haven't listened to it yet - because I don't have itunes on my work PC and have other things competing for 45 minutes of my time. (Written documents are more productive.) But I mention it here - because Pure Storage has been 1 of the top 5 companies which readers have been searching for this month - so I think that maybe a big news story may break soon.


how to configure Micron SATA SSDs for VSAN as a lower cost and faster alternative to SAS HDDs in a Dell PowerEdge

Editor:- September 12, 2014 - Micron today published a new blog - VSAN Demo 2014: A How-To Guide - which gives a top level configuration summary of a recent benchmark demo it ran at VMWorld.

Micron's introduction says "Our primary goal was to demonstrate best-in-class VSAN performance and show how that compared to a standard VSAN configured with SAS HDDs. One of the most interesting aspects of our configuration was that our M500 client (cheap SATA) SSDs were actually less expensive than the SAS 10K HDDs (in the comparison system)." ...read the article

Editor's comments:- An interesting thing (for me) is that - for reasons explained in the article - Micron configured VSAN to see the M500 SSDs as HDDs.

See also:- SSD software, How will the hard drive market fare... in a solid state storage world?

Later:- - BTW 4 days after the above post - Micron launched the M600 SATA SSD family - a low power (150mW typ), range using 16nm flash - and available in M.2, mSATA and 2.5" form factors.


Seagate launches new improved Nytro PCIe SSDs

Editor:- September 10, 2014 - Seagate today launched 2 new PCIe SSDs - which are based on the SSD product lines and brand assets of the recently acquired SSD business of LSI.
  • the Nytro XP6302 is a HHHL, gen 3 PCIe SSD - which provides up to 1.75 TB of usable eMLC capacity with 200 microseconds average latency, and 295K/79K R/W IOPS (8KB) and rated for 0.9 DWPD (approx) write endurance for 5 years. .
  • the Nytro XP6210 is a FHHL gen 2 PCIe SSD with 1.86TB usable 19nm cMLC capacity, with 50 microseconds average latency 185K/120K R/W IOPS (8KB), and rated at 1.6 DWPD (approx) write endurance for 5 years.



Dell uses Avago's 12Gb/s SAS chips in new RAID systems

Editor:- September 10, 2014 - Avago Technologies today announced that Dell has selected Avago's 12Gb/s SAS technology (recently acquired from LSI) for use in RAID controllers in Dell's new PowerEdge Servers. See also:- SAS SSDs, RAID systems, storage glue chips


Seagate reports low take up of hybrid drives

Editor:- September 10 , 2014 - Seagate today announced that it has shipped its 10 millionth solid-state hybrid hard drive (SSHD).

Seagate says it has experienced rising demand over the last 2 years for these solutions that offer the speed of SSDs combined with the industry's highest storage capacities.

Editor's comments:- The low take up of Seagate's hybrid drives for notebooks - which are 10x smaller than equivalent SSD shipments - rather than (as Seagate must have hoped when they launched these products 10x bigger) shows that StorageSearch.com's original assessment about the flaws in the concept (reported on these news pages in April 2005) were correct.

At that time I pointed to the segmental shrinking acceptability of the integrated hybrid drive concept concept which my analysis suggested was due to the inflexibility of having to fix the ratio of flash to magnetic media when the drive is made rather than being able to adapt and optimize these ratios of capacity and performance at the system level. The all in one hybrid also precludes optimum integration of the caching regimes with the various OSes.

Having said that - a niche market is better than no market. And the recent acquisition of LSI's SSD business - which gives Seagate control of the SandForce SSD controller family - will give Seagate the leverage to grab a sizable chunk of the notebook SSD market - if it chooses to use that leverage.


OCZ samples hot swap, fast 2.5" NVMe SSDs

Editor:- September 9, 2014 - OCZ announced that this month it will begin sampling a new 2.5" hot swappable enterprise PCIe SSD - the Z-Drive 6000 - a native PCIe 3.0 NVMe 1.1 solution - which the company says "provides industry-leading IOPS per dollar".

It has a SFF-8639 connector, internal RAID, power loss data protection, "consistent low latency", and encryption.

OCZ also unveiled a new SATA SSD aimed at customers in hyperscale and cloud markets - the Saber 1000 - which uses OCZ's Barefoot 3 controller and Toshiba's 19nm nand flash memory.

Editor's comments:- Although OCZ demonstrated the SSD industry's first working 3.5" PCIe SSD prototype 4 years ago - in August 2010 - the company didn't follow through to establish an early lead in its natural successor - the 2.5" enterprise PCIe market.

The main reason for that loss of momentum was financial problems at OCZ which for a few years weighed against introducing new products which didn't have immediate profitable markets.

Now, however, with OCZ having been almost a year as a Toshiba group company - the small form factor enterprise NVMe market looks like a natural fit for OCZ - as an extension of its long running conventional form factor PCIe SSD accelerator business and SAS SSD product lines.


HGST announces 2nd generation clustering software for FlashMAX PCIe SSDs

Editor:- September 9, 2014 - HGST today announced a new improved version of the high availability clustering capability previously available in the PCIe SSD product line acquired last year from Virident.

HGST's Virident Space allows clustering of up to 128 servers and 16 PCIe storage devices to deliver one or more shared volumes of high performance flash storage with a total usable capacity of more than 38TB.

HGST says its Virident HA provides a "high-throughput, low-latency synchronous replication across servers for data residing on FlashMAX PCIe devices. If the primary server fails, the secondary server can automatically start a standby copy of your application using the secondary replica of the data."

For more details see - HGST Virident Software 2.0 (pdf)

Editor's comments:- This capability had already been demonstrated last year - and ESG reported on the technology in January 2014.

But at that time - the clustering product called vShare - was restricted to a small number of servers - and the data access fabric was restricted to Infiniband only.

With the rev 2.0 software - the number of connected devices has increased - and users also have the lower cost option of using Ethernet as an alternative supported fabric.


StorageSearch.com updates 10 key SSD ideas in 2014

Editor:- September 2, 2014 - StorageSearch.com today published a new home page blog - 10 key SSD ideas which emerged and clarified in 2014.

Yeah - I know it's not January 2015 yet - but it already feels like enough big SSD changes have happened this year already to make an end of year type of round up article not only desirable but imperative. ...read the article


Seagate completes acquisition of LSI's SSD business

Editor:- September 2, 2014 - Seagate today announced it has completed its previously announced acquisition of the assets of LSI's Accelerated Solutions Division and Flash Components Division from Avago Technologies.

"There is a growing opportunity for mobile and enterprise flash-based storage solutions, which is why we're excited about this strategic technology acquisition," said Steve Luczo, Seagate Chairman and CEO.

"Integrating LSI's Enterprise PCIe flash and SSD controller products, and its engineering capabilities into Seagate's leading storage technology portfolio and product development will expand our ability to meet a broader base of customers' needs and drive new revenue opportunities."
.
SSD news - August 2014
.
In September 2005 - SimpleTech (STEC) launched the world's first dual interface SSD. At launch time the Zeus Dual Interface SSD, with both a USB and SATA interface, offered capacities up to 192GB in a 3.5-inch form factor, and sustained read/write rates of 60 MBytes per second.
SSD market history
.

storage search banner

..
SSD news page image - click to  enlarge

Michelangelo was looking for David.
Megabyte was looking for the inner SSD.
SSD news icon on StorageSearch.com since 1998
..
.
Virtium  SSDs - click for more info
industrial SATA SSDs
efficiently matched to embedded needs
StorFly – from Virtium
.

related guides

click for more info
.
Targa Series 4 - 2.5 inch SCSI flash disk
2.5" removable military SSDs
for airborne apps - GbE / SATA / USB
from Targa Systems
.

related guides


.
LSI SandForce SSD processors - click for more info
the awards winning silicon
driving world's leading SSDs
from Seagate
.

related guides

.
picture of Z drive 4500 PCIe SSD from OCZ
bootable integrated PCIe SSD based acceleration
with caching optimized for Windows WXL
the Z-Drive 4500 - from OCZ
a Toshiba group company
.
related guides

.
industrial CF cards from Cactus
industrial grade Compact Flash cards
from Cactus Technologies

related guides

.
image of PCIe SSD from  CoreRise
high end enterprise PCIe SSD performance
without the high end price
Comay BladeDrive E28
from CoreRise
related guides

.
click here for more info about the Guardian SSD
highest integrity 2.5" military SATA SSDs
with TRRUST-Purge and AES-256 encryption
TRRUST-STOR - from Microsemi
.

related guides

.
PCIe chips from PLX - click for more info
switches for leading PCIe SSD designs
ExpressLane from PLX Technology
..

related guides

.
SSD ad - click for more info

new industrial SSDs to replace
EOL SiliconSystems and others
take a look at PCcardsDirect

related guides
SSD market perspective
SSD jargon



.


.
Surviving SSD sudden power loss
Why should you care what happens in an SSD when the power goes down?

This important design feature - which barely rates a mention in most SSD datasheets and press releases - has a strong impact on SSD data integrity and operational reliability.

This article will help you understand why some SSDs which (work perfectly well in one type of application) might fail in others... even when the changes in the operational environment appear to be negligible.
image shows Megabyte's hot air balloon - click to read the article SSD power down architectures and acharacteristics If you thought endurance was the end of the SSD reliability story - think again. ...read the article
.