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Top SSD Companies
2018 - SSD market changes
how fast can your SSD run backwards?
are we ready for infinitely faster RAM?
40 years of thinking about nvm endurance
how not to compile a list of military SSD companies
NVMdurance in stealth mode?
Editor:- November 21, 2018 - I can only recall a couple of occasions when an SSD company has gone back into stealth mode - and I so my curiosity was piqued by a note on the about us page of NVMdurance - which (in listing some of the impressive milestones of this company which pioneered and patented IP related to the machine learning characterization of flash) concluded with this...

"2018 - Key Machine Learning IP acquired under NDA, NVMdurance goes into stealth mode."

Really? There's a story here - I thought - some of which was guessable - but I was looking for more than conjecture and so was delighted to find rather more than I had expected in an article - published last month in the Dublin Globe - '...When an exit isn't all it's cracked up to be - by Gordon Hunt - which is based on an interview with Pearse Coyle (who was CEO of NVMdurance between 2012 and 2017). ' the article

See also:- VCs and SSDs, storage reliability, SSD Controllers and IP

what happened in SSD Year 2018?
Editor:- November 11, 2018 - there's a new article on - SSD Year 2018 - 3 things which have already happened and 1 which hasn't (yet)

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SSD news headlines in past 12 months or so
December 2017 - Diablo Technologies - which had been the first company to ship predominantly flash memory based SSDs and memory accelerators compatible with DRAM DDR3/4 bus slots - ceased operations and filed for bankruptcy.

January 2018 - Foremay announced the availability its new "Immortal" brand of radiation hardened SSDs for the military and aerospace markets.

February 2018 - The Gen-Z Consortium announced that the Gen-Z Core Specification 1.0 was publicly available.

March 2018 - Nimbus announced it was sampling 3.5" 100TB SAS SSDs with unlimited DWPD.

April 2018 - STT announced a breakthrough design improvement to MRAM. STT's Precessional Spin Current (PSC) structure lengthened retention time by a factor of over 10,000.

May 2018 - Micron began sampling the industry's first SSD built on quad-level cell (QLC) NAND technology.

June 2018 - GridGain began beta sampling its in-memory cache as a cloud service.

July 2018 - Intel and Micron agreed to a parting of the ways on future 3DXPoint development.

Upto that point Micron had seen minimal revenue from 3DXPoint whereas the potential of developing a software ecosystem centered around this technology had strategic lock-in attractions for Intel regardless of near term memory sales. Zsolt Kerekes - founding editor of suggested "the memoryfication of processors and the flattening of latency by SSD infrastructure means that traditional complex multi level cache server processors are wasteful... and that due to trends in memory accelerators for the memory defined software market... memory and processor companies (like Intel and Micron) will in future have more reasons to become competitors rather than collaborators in strategic designs in the cloud."

August 2018 - Marvell began sampling the first NVMe-oF SSD Converter Controller. aimed at a EBOF (Ethernet Bunch of Flash) applications.

September 2018 - SNIA (Storage Networking Industry Association) entered the computational storage market.

October 2018 - DRAMeXchange (a market research company which tracked memory and SSD price trends) said the supercycle of DRAM price growth - which had lasted for 9 consecutive quarters - was over. (See boom bust cycles in the memory market for other historic examples and perspectives.)

more SSD history

strategic bifurcations in SSD market history
Editor:- October 29, 2018 - there's a new article on

Strategic Bifurcations in SSD Market History.

image shows software factory - click to see storage software directoryIt's about 4 ways to split the long messy timeline of SSD history into "before and after" to help the understanding of now. the article

Editor's comments:- maybe you've got your own ideas about what these strategic splits should have been. And maybe you would have thought of a better title too. This may be my last major article about SSDs - so I packed in as much as I could.


sanitizing sensitive SSDs?

heed my words oh prideful SSD

from dust you were born

and unto dust you shall return
Editor:- September 25, 2018 - A reader - Simon Zola - Manager, AVTEL Data Destruction emailed me last week after seeing my recent home page blog - looking back at my 19 years of writing about the data recovery market - which I concluded with this..

Disk Sanitizers
disk sanitizers
Is there an opposite concept to data recovery?


The flip side to data recovery is fast purge SSDs and disk sanitizers.

Simon said - "I have only just come across you and your site and I would love to hear your opinion on meaningful data sanitisation of SSD."

Fast Purge flash SSDs directory & articles
fast purge SSDs
I thought to myself how many years is it since I set up a dedicated SSD fast erase / purge page? - I checked. It started in 2009. (This is one of the joys and frustrations of the web. Frustration - that you can't find stuff which has been around for a long time - because it gets drowned by social chit chat. Joy - in knowing that there must be a lot more readers out there who also care about the same problems.)

Anyway - what I said to Simon was - "There is a double digit list of standards by defence and government agencies which cover various use cases and whether the drive is desired to be redeployed for another project or not. The purpose of extreme autonomous SSD purge is to destroy enough critical chips in the encrypted SSD so that if it falls into the wrong hands (captured by enemy) then the SSD data will remain immune to the best efforts of forensic data recovery. Thats just one reason why DR and security agencies intersect and are mutually aware. But as DR gets better then sanitisation has to advance too (best way being destruction of the chips)."

Anyway Simon - whose company does Onsite Physical Destruction of HDDs and SSDs in Australia pointed me towards an interesting video - re Mobile Data Destruction which shows the type of thing his company does. It's on youtube which means that many of you won't be able to see it right now if you're viewing this at work.

So I'll describe what happens...

The video shows a van which arrives at your site and delivers via a conveyor belt all the drives you want shredded - presumably while one of your security people watches it happening. (You'd have to verify the exact design and chutes etc yourself obviously to satisfy yourself there are no magical trap doors - or maybe you could just rent the facility. It depends on your own circumstances.)

That prompted me to realize that it had been about 2005 when I had last written much about the disk sanitization services and equipment business (as opposed to autonomous drive purge) because in a way - once you know what needs to be done - what more can you say about it? But maybe that page could do with a refresh - which is why I'm writing this.

We are much more sensitive and vigilant about environmental impacts nowadays (2018) compared to the start of my own career (1977) when many of the industries which paid the wages of our local communities and where our friends and neighbors and customers worked were inevitably sometimes spilling stuff into the sky, ground and water.

So I said - Hi Simon - I forgot to ask this... how is the shredded material from the sanitized drives processed? I mean the cost from an environmental hazard point of view?

Simon said - 0 to land fill. (And then he gave me a list of who reprocesses what afterwards - which you can find out more about on his web site.)

Editor's comments:- I'm guessing that wherever you live you might be interested in the possibilities opened up a mobile service like this.

My own modest needs in this category have always been simply managed by the expedient of a log splitter or ax - but I'm only smashing one drive each season or less. Some of the kids of family friends have made artworks out of the little chunks of smashed up drives and mangled chips.

Small dustry grains are less artistic but better from the security angle.

If you could go back in time and take with you a factory full of modern memory chips and SSDs (along with backwards compatible adapters) what real impact would that have?
are we ready for infinitely faster RAM?


storage history
SSD history ..
SSD SoCs controllers
SSD controllers ..
image shows mouse building storage - click to see industrial SSDs article
industrial SSDs ..
image shows megabyte waving the winners trophy - there are over 200 SSD oems - which ones matter? - click to read article
top SSD companies ..

... / SSD history / more pages like this

SSD news

Princeton's in-memory accelerator uses switched caps to take neural matrix MACs out of the digital box

Editor:- November 22, 2018 - In memory computing acceleration is one of those architectural ideas which - continuing in the footsteps of the modern era of SSDs - now looks well placed to be the focus of creating faster solutions which leverage the new loci of latency unbottlenecking opportunities revealed by the incremental memoryfication of data processing.

In recent years we've seen advanced design groups leveraging algorithm aware approaches to neural network processors which enable them to usefully deploy low resolution MACs (such as Google's TPU).

And stretching this idea outside the binary box some hybrid implementations have mixed analog and digital computing elements.

For example the ReRAM ML engines mentioned in 2 news stories in May 2018.

Similar to that vein of thinking - but using different underlying technology - researchers at Princeton University recently published a paper (a Microprocessor implemented in 65nm CMOS with Configurable and Bit-scalable Accelerator for Programmable In-memory Computing (abstract) / complete pdf) which describes a new type of in-memory-computing accelerator which is integrated in a programmable processor architecture which uses charge domain compute elements built around 8 bit resolution ADCs and switched capacitors to perform multiplication and accumulation.

The authors say their 65nm CMOS reference design of a 590kb in-memory-computing accelerator shows an energy efficiency of 152/297 1b-TOPS/W and throughput of 4.7/1.9 1b-TOPS (scaling linearly with the matrix/input-vector element precisions) at VDD of 1.2/0.85V. the paper (pdf)

In a related non technical interview article by Princeton communications - Merging memory and computation, programmable chip speeds AI, slashes power use - one of the researchers - Naveen Verma - Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering - says (among other things)...

"In-memory computing has been showing a lot of promise in recent years, in really addressing the energy and speed of computing systems. But the big question has been whether that promise would scale and be usable by system designers towards all of the AI applications we really care about. That makes programmability necessary." the article

optimizing CPUs for use with SSDs
are we ready for infinitely faster RAM?

Smart's ZMM conceptSMART Modular showcases 96GB Gen-Z Memory Module

Editor:- November 12, 2018 - SMART Modular today announced it is showcasing its Gen-Z Memory Module this month at SC18 in Dallas.

SMART's ZMM demo unit comes in a PCIe HHHL form factor. It operates at data rates up to 40GB/s and with less than 400ns load-to-use memory capacity of 96GB of DRAM. The ZMM uses IntelliProp's Mamba (PCIe bridge) fabric memory controller which supports up to 384GB of DRAM.

Spin Memory announces new agreements related to its MRAM

Editor:- November 11, 2018 - Spin Memory (formerly called Spin Transfer Technologies) today announced a $52 million Series B funding round and an agreement with Applied Materials to create a comprehensive embedded MRAM solution and also a commercial agreement with Arm for the licensing of Spin Memory's Endurance Engine design IP to address SRAM applications in SoCs.

See also:- optimizing processors in in the Post Modernist Memoryfication Era

university researchers disclose delusion of security blanket delivered by popular self encrypting SSDs

Editor:- November 8, 2018 - Researchers at Radboud University, in the Netherlands have recently published a paper - self-encrypting deception: weaknesses in the encryption of SSDs (pdf).

The authors conclude - "we found that many hardware implementations of full disk encryption in SSDs have critical security weaknesses, for many models allowing for complete recovery of the data without knowledge of any secret... This challenges the view that hardware encryption is preferable over software encryption. We conclude that one should not rely solely on hardware encryption offered by SSDs."

After discovering the ineffectiveness of the protection offered by the encryption hardware in the models affected - the authors alerted the authorities and agreed to wait 6 month before publishing their paper so as to enable the manufacturers - whose products had been tested (Micron and Samsung confirmed the vulnerability issues) to work on firmware updates.

The paper also examines commonly held assumptions about the security of encryption engines in various states when analyzed from particular attack directions. the artice (pdf)

Editor's comments:- as with all aspects of SSD design - the correlation between what the customer expects and what does actually happen in the real world depends on the quality of the designers and the verification process. That's why it's not unusual in mission critical projects using industrial SSDs for the customer verification process to take longer in elapsed time than it took to design the original SSD.

See also:- SSD security, fast purge SSDs, Why consumers should expect to see more flaky SSDs (2009)

Everspin announces new fab deal to make more MRAM

Editor:- November 5, 2018 - Everspin today announced it would augment the production capacity for its Toggle MRAM by means of a multi-year partnership to use the fabs of SilTerra (Malaysia based semiconductor manufacturing services company). Initial production is expected to start in calendar year 2020. Everspin said it will continue in parallel to operate its manufacturing line for Toggle MRAM in Chandler, AZ.

Understanding Macro Memory Market Trends

Moore's Law is history - Newton's 3rd may be better

Editor:- November 1, 2018 - Although memory cell behavior is best understood by referring to quantum physics there seems to be a role for Newtonian Mechanics in the behavior of memory markets - especially when it comes to patent disuputes and tariff barriers.

I refer of course to that well known phrase I learned at school...

current events in storage and SSD"To ever action there is an equal and opposite reaction."

On earlier versions of this SSD news page - now in the archive - the simmerings of the memory patent and tariff disputes between the US and China went something like this...
  • July 2018 - Micron's memory sales in China were the object of a preliminary injunction obtained by UMC.
The next development on this tariff ping pong is reported in a story (October 30, 2018) in EETimes - US Bans Exports to Chinese DRAM Maker - about Fujian Jinhua - which has been declared a threat to US national security.

EETimes says - "The move means that U.S. firms need a license for all exports, re-exports, and transfers of commodities and software to Jinhua. Such license applications will be reviewed with a presumption of denial..." the article

re Micron's "soft-announcement" of a DRAM replacement SCM

Editor:- October 30, 2018 - A new article - the Divorce - Micron and Intel See Different Futures - by William Tidwell - who is a regular memory market commentator on - discusses among other things:- the need for in-memory processing and signs that Micron is working on a new SCM memory architecture.

Re the interdependency of memory and processor architecture Tidwell says - "...memory in today's system architecture is locked in a fatal embrace with the CPU. It is stranded."

And as part of a multi-page analysis and detailed speculative look ahead as to what Micron will do with the fabs it gets from buying out Intel's stake in the joint IMFT venture - Tidwell says - "Under promise, over deliver - is the right strategy for Micron in the wake of Intel's 3DXPoint misadventures. I believe this is what they are doing and that gives investors reason to hope that the New Memory will be commercialized in FY '21." the article

See also:- what's RAM really?

what's Metadata-as-a-Service got to with SSDs?

Editor:- October 24, 2018 - There's a small number of new companies which attract my attention because of the impact which one or more their founders has had on the SSD market in the past.

news image - SSD and a  hammer So although it's not strictly speaking an SSD company - and I'm counting down the weeks to my retirement in 2019 - and trying not to start too many new strands of content which I can't complete tidily - I was very interested to see these stories about a new company called Hammerspace which provides a sequel to the question of what happened next to one of the esteemed co-founders of Fusion-io and Primary Data - that person being David Flynn who has probably done more work on figuring out and managing the intricacies of data and the latency and repurposing cost-benefits of legacy and new dynasty architectures scrambled in the archeological mix of big data infrastructuer than anyone else on the planet. Here are the links. See also:- SSDs in the cloud, re SSD everywhere software, memory defined software

Violin acquires X-IO Storage

Editor:- October 16, 2018 - Violin Systems today announced it has signed a letter of intent with X-IO Technologies to acquire X-IO Storage, the division of X-IO Technologies that developed the Intelligent Storage Element (ISE) flash and hybrid storage array product lines. Financial terms were not disclosed.

See also:- acquisitions in the SSD market
hybrid storage arrays and flash caches - timeline 2010 to 2017

$100 million AI investment fund launched by Micron

Editor:- October 10, 2018 - Micron announced that it will invest up to $100 million in startups with a strong focus on AI and machine learning through its strategic investments entity, Micron Ventures.

And in a related announcement, the Micron Foundation launched a $1 million grant for universities and non-profit organizations to conduct research on AI.

See also:- VCs in SSDs
memory defined software
what's the value of infinitely faster RAM?
controllernomics - joins the memory latency to do list
after AFAs - what's the next box? - cloud adapted memory systems

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Megabyte went through his Michelangelo  phase - click to enlarge 1998 SSD news image on StorageSearch

Megabyte went through his
Michelangelo phase.
Megabyte's winter red hat
no more Red Hat jokes - OK?
Novembers of yore in SSD market history
November 2000 Solid Data Systems discussed the advantages of SAN SSD accelerators in the article - Solid State File-Caching for Performance and Scalability.
November 2001 Texas Memory Systems announced the industry's first NAS SSD for enterprise acceleration.
November 2002 TI produced a 64Mb ferroelectric RAM chip using Ramtron's patented FRAM technology.
November 2005 Micron and Intel announced an agreement to up a new jointly owned company IM Flash Technologies.

Texas Memory Systems demonstrated its first native InfiniBand rackmount SSD accelerator.
November 2006 SanDisk acquired M-Systems which had been a pioneer in the use of MLC in SSDs.
November 2009 Google opened its doors to developers who wanted to work with a new operating system Chrome OS which was designed at the outset around solid state storage and which specifically excluded the paradigm of hard drives.
November 2011 SSRC published a paper which examined the possible future advantages of using arrays of storage class memory nodes as a cost effective archiving solution compared to hard drives and tape.
November 2012 First mention of Diablo Technologies on with news of a $28 million funding round.
November 2013 NetApp underwhelmed SSD analysts with the announcement that it had shipped 59PB of SSDs in the past 3 years.
November 2014 Steve Wozniak rejoined the old "band" of the enterprise flash accelerator songbook writers from Fusion-io in the newly emerging Primary Data.
November 2015 Netlist revealed how it was going to enter the storage class memory SSD DIMM wars market by way of a 5 year joint development with Samsung.
November 2016 Elastifile announced it had been granted a US patent for a method of managing flash-aware adaptive data management in cloud scale meshes.
November 2017 IntelliProp demonstrated a memory controller for the emerging Gen-Z memory fabric.


the fastest SSDs I like the idea that "fastest" claims are still
hard currency in
SSD marketing

commenting on Violin Systems - October 3, 2018